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APA: Citing Business Sources: Home

Examples and resources for citing online business sources in APA Style

APA Style

This Guide provides information on how to cite various Business sources. With the exact samples, it will be easier for you to figure it out, how citation should be done properly. 

In-Text Citations: The APA Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) offers formatting guidelines and examples of in-text citations.

APA Guidelines on Articles

Sample Citations
  • If no DOI is assigned to the online content, include the home page URL for the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference. Do not include the name of the database. Use this format: Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Journal article with DOI

Aubert, C., & Reynaud, A. (2005). The impact of regulation on cost efficiency: An empirical analysis of Wisconsin water utilities. Journal of Productivity Analysis23(3), 383-409. doi:

Journal article without DOI

Collins, D. (1996). Serving the homeless and low-income communities through business & society/business ethics class projects: The University of Wisconsin-Madison plan. Journal of Business Ethics15(1), 67-85. Retrieved from

Magazine or trade publication article

Cernivec, S. (2014, April). The heart of beer: Specialty malts add variety to craft beer. Beverage Industry105(4), 54. Retrieved from

Newspaper article

Harding, R. (2014, June 30). The productivity puzzle. Financial Times. Retrieved from

Other Types of Sources


  • Report, individual author

Hamilton, R. (2013). Germany business forecast report - Q4 2013 [BMI industry report]. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Complete database.

  • Report, group or corporate author

Business Monitor International. (2014). Egypt shipping report - Q4 2014. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Complete database.

GlobalData. (2014, May). Wisconsin electric power company (WEC) - alternative energy - deals and alliances profile (Reference Code GDAE123254D). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Complete database.

Annual Reports and SEC Filings

  • Annual report from the company website

Netflix. (2014, January 31). Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. Retrieved from

Target Corporation. (2014, March 14). 2013 annual report. Retrieved from

  • SEC/EDGAR filings (2014, July 24). Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2014. Retrieved from U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission website:

Bloomberg Professional

  • Data

Bloomberg L.P. (n.d.). Wausau Paper Corp quarterly profitability ratios in USD, 03/31/12 to 03/31/14. Retrieved July 31, 2014 from Bloomberg Professional database.

Bloomberg L.P. (n.d.). US dollar swaps (30/360, S/A) curve, last and 1M, 08/28/14 15:02:44 and 07/28/14 [Graph]. Retrieved August 28, 2014 from Bloomberg Professional database.

  • Report, individual author

Moskowitz, M., & Kim, M. (2014, March 5). IBM: The answer is Watson. What is the newest part of IBM's big data/analytics growth engine? [J.P. Morgan North America Equity Research report]. Retrieved from Bloomberg Professional database.

Business Source Complete

  • Report, group or corporate author

C. Barnes & Co. (2013). Dairy Products Mfg. Industry (NAICS 31151) [2014 Industry & Market series]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

IHS. (2014, July 1). Country reports - Ukraine: Economics and country risk. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

MarketLine. (2012, May 18). Apple, Inc. SWOT analysis. (Reference Code 5B0A0C20-9BB6-4284-A575-AC0F2261F45C) [Company profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.


  • Newsletter article, no author

Corporate inversions: potential use of executive authority pending Congressional action. (2014, August 14). Federal Taxes Weekly Alert Newsletter (RIA). Retrieved from

Country Commercial Guides on

  • Corporate author, government report (HTML version: Specific section of a report)

International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. (2016, April 17). Bulgaria - market overview. In Bulgaria country commercial guide. Retrieved from


  • HTML version: Specific section of a report, group or corporate author

CountryWatch. (n.d.). Cultural etiquette. In Belgium country review. Retrieved August 19, 2014 from CountryWatch database.

  • PDF version: Specific section of a report, individual author or editor

Social overview. (2014). In D. Y. Coleman (Ed.), Belgium country review (pp. 154-207). Retrieved from CountryWatch database.

  • PDF version: Entire report, individual author or editor

Coleman, D. Y. (Ed.). (2014). Belgium country review. Retrieved from CountryWatch database.

D&B Business Browser

  • Report, group or corporate author

  • Profile & Financials

Dun & Bradstreet. (n.d.). Company summary for Kohl's Corporation. Retrieved April 12, 2017 from D&B Business Browser database.

Dun & Bradstreet. (2017, March 31). Ratio comparisons for Kohl's Corporation. Retrieved from D&B Business Browser database.

  • News & Analysis: Analysts' Reports

Tunick, B. (2017, February 23). Kohl's Corporation - Doing all the right things but traffic remains elusive; Reiterate UP. Retrieved from D&B Business Browser database.

Google Finance and Yahoo Finance

  • Web page, no author

Financial statements for Harley-Davidson Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved July 31, 2014 from

HOG historical prices, Harley Davidson, Inc. common stock. (n.d.). Retrieved September 2, 2014 from


  • Report, individual author

Diment, D. (2014, June). IBISWorld industry report 71211: Museums in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

IMF eLibrary Data

  • Data

International Monetary Fund. (n.d.). Government finance selected indicators: Albania. In International Financial Statistics (IFS). Retrieved June 10, 2016 from

IndustriusCFO Industry Metrics

  • Data

IndustriusCFO. (n.d.). Industry metrics four years - NAICS 31183 - tortilla manufacturing. Retrieved April 28, 2016 from IndustriusCFO Industry Metrics database.


  • Journal article without DOI

Garlock, D. C., & Khalaf, A. N. (2014, July 18). Debt vs. equity: Myths, best practices and practical considerations for U.S. tax aspects of related-party financings. TAXES - The Tax Magazine92(8), 37-66. Retrieved from

Mergent Online

  • Data

Mergent. (n.d.). Johnson Controls Inc company financials as reported annual balance sheet, 09/30/2009 to 09/30/2013. Retrieved August 20, 2014 from Mergent Online database.

Mintel Academic

  • Report, individual author

O'Donnell, F. (2014, July). Marketing to sports fans - US. Retrieved from Mintel Academic database.

Policy Brief

  • Report, individual author

Bhaduri, A. (2014, January). What remains of the theory of demand management in a globalizing world? (No. 130, 2014) [Policy brief]. Retrieved from Levy Economics Institute of Bard College website:

ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global

  • Doctoral dissertation, from a commercial database

Convertino, G. J. (2008). A perspective on current human resources practices by human resource executives at institutions of higher education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database. (UMI Number: 3329877)


  • Data set

Infogroup. (2015). U.S. Businesses [Data file]. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from ReferenceUSA database.

Infogroup. (2015). U.S. Consumers / Lifestyles [Data file]. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from ReferenceUSA database.

Simmons OneView

  • Data set

Simmons Research LLC. (2012). Spring 2012 NCS adult study 12-month [Data file]. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from Simmons OneView database.

Websites, Internet Message Boards, Electronic Mailing Lists, and Social Media

  • Blog post

Brown, J. M. (2014, September 1). How corporate share buybacks are destroying America [Blog post]. Retrieved from

  • Blog comment

Ericson, R. (2014, September 1). Re: How corporate share buybacks are destroying America [Blog comment]. Retrieved from

  • Twitter update or tweet

Yellen, J. [The_Yellen]. (2014, September 2). Why a rising jobless rate will be good for Yellen [Tweet]. Retrieved from

  • Web page, group or corporate author

Uber. (n.d.). About Uber. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from

White paper

  • Report, group or corporate author

U.S. Postal Service, Office of Inspector General. (2014, January 7). Providing non-bank financial services for the underserved (Report Number: RARC-WP-14-007) [White paper]. Retrieved from


University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries. (n.d.) APA Style for Online Business Resources. Retrieved April 11, 2018 from

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